Fossiele anomalieën

by | feb 1, 2018 | Onderwijs, Paleontologie

Dit artikel verscheen eerder (in 2007) op de inmiddels opgeheven website evolutie.eu.

Een vaak gehoord argument tegen het scheppingsmodel is dat de wereldwijde zondvloed niet zou kunnen zorgen voor de ‘stratigrafische differentiatie’ van fossielen. Dat wil zeggen: het verschijnsel dat veel families/geslachten alleen in bepaalde aardlagen voorkomen. Bijvoorbeeld Amaltheus (een ammoniet) komt alleen voor in het Vroege Jura (op de uniformitarianistische tijdschaal), terwijl Puppigerus (een zeeschildpad) alleen in het Eoceen voorkomt. In een ander artikel wordt uitgebreid ingegaan op de vraag hoe de zondvloed de volgorde in het fossielenarchief kan verklaren. In dit artikel wordt aangetoond dat de situatie lang niet zo ernstig is als het soms lijkt. Er zijn namelijk veel uitzonderingen: fossielen worden vaak gevonden in lagen waar ze volgens evolutionisten niet thuishoren.

Dit soort vondsten worden echter bijna altijd wegverklaard. Als een fossiel gevonden wordt in een te jonge laag, kan dit wegverklaard worden door te zeggen dat het oudere gesteente, waar het fossiel oorspronkelijk in zat, geërodeerd is en het fossiel vervolgens opnieuw bedekt is door (jonger) sediment. Dit wordt ‘reworking’ genoemd. Als een fossiel in een te oude laag wordt gevonden, kan dit wegverklaard worden door te zeggen dat er sprake is geweest van contaminatie met jongere fossielen.

Deze ad hoc verklaringen worden vooral gebruikt voor microfossielen (te klein om met het blote oog te zien). Wanneer deze verklaringen niet aannemelijk zijn (bijvoorbeeld contaminatie van oudere lagen door macrofossielen is volstrekt onaannemelijk), heeft men weinig keus dan te concluderen dat de stratigrafische range van de betreffende familie toch groter is dan aanvankelijk gedacht werd. Ook dit is een veelvuldig voorkomend verschijnsel.

Hieronder volgt een lijst met meer dan 200 voorbeelden van gepubliceerde ‘out-of-place’ fossielen. De tabel is afkomstig van een in 1982 gepubliceerd artikel van John Woodmorappe (An Anthology of Matters Significant to Creationism and Diluviology: Report 2, Creation Research Society Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 201-223). De meeste voorbeelden uit de tabel zijn gepubliceerd in de jaren ’70 en begin jaren ’80.
Dit is waarschijnlijk nog maar het topje van de ijsberg, want het is waarschijnlijk dat veel fossielen die in de verkeerde lagen worden gevonden, simpelweg niet worden gerapporteerd. En Woodmorappe vermeldde in zijn artikel: ‘The entries are examples only and do not represent a comprehensive literature search.’

De meeste van de voorbeelden in de tabel worden wegverklaard a.d.h.v. ‘reworking’. Hoewel reworking niet onmogelijk is, zegt het toch iets dat men deze uitvlucht zo vaak nodig heeft. Het is goed mogelijk dat het idee dat veel families/geslachten gelimiteerd zijn tot een smalle stratigrafische range, gedeeltelijk kunstmatig in stand gehouden wordt door anomalieën op die manier weg te verklaren.

 

 Tabel Fossiele Anomalieën

Type of Fossil:“Proper” Age:Found In:LocationRef.
ForaminifersPleistoceneTertiaryAtlantic Ocean1
PollenTertiaryQuaternaryBolkow, Poland2
PollenTertiaryCretaceousEast Netherlands3
Mammal bonesTertiary (late)Tertiary (early)Kazakhstan, USSR4
Algae (?)TertiaryCretaceousFrance5
ForaminifersTertiaryCretaceousNigeria6
NannoplanktonTertiary (lower)Tertiary (higher)Tabqa, Syria7
SporesTertiary (recent)PermianSouthland, New Zealand8
SporesTertiaryPleistoceneNorth Caspia, USSR9
ForaminifersTertiaryCretaceousNorth Italy (167)10
PollenTertiaryPleistoceneYenisei, USSR11
Palm woodTertiaryJurassicUtah, USA12
ForaminifersTertiary (early)Tertiary (medial)Trinidad, West Indies13
ForaminifersTertiary (early)Tertiary (medial)Victoria, Autralia14
ForaminifersTertiary (early)Tertiary (medial)Hungary15
NannoplanktonTertiary (early)Tertiary (medial)Romania16
SporesTertiary (recent)JurassicLouisiana-Texas, USA17
Mammal bonesTertiary (early)Tertiary (medial)Northeast Siberia, USSR18
ForaminifersCretaceousTertiaryIonian Sea19
ForaminifersCretaceousTertiaryWest Israel (213)20
CoccolithsCretaceousTertiaryCrimea, USSR21
SporesCretaceousTertiaryKazan, USSR22
PollenCretaceousTertiaryBritish Columbia, Canada23
PollenCretaceousTertiaryArctic Canada23
PollenCretaceousTertiaryFushun, China23
PollenCretaceousTertiaryShandong, China23
PollenCretaceousTertiarySouth Coastal China23
PollenCretaceousTertiarySpitzbergen, Norway24
PollenCretaceousTertiaryUral Mts., USSR24
PollenCretaceousTertiaryWest Siberia, USSR24
DinoflagellateCretaceousTertiaryAustralia25
NannoplanktonCretaceousTertiaryGlogow, Poland26
ForaminifersCretaceousTertiaryAlabama, USA27
NannofloraCretaceousTertiaryZinda Pir, W. Pakistan28
PollenCretaceousPleistoceneYenisei, USSR11
NannofloraCretaceousTertiaryTang-E-Bijar, Iran29
ForaminifersCretaceousJurassicScania, Sweden (175)30
PollenCretaceousCambrianHoly Cross Mts., Poland31
NannoplanktonCretaceousTertiaryUkraine, USSR32
PollenCretaceousTertiaryUtah, USA (149)33
SporesCretaceousPleistoceneNewfoundland, Canada34
SporesCretaceousTertiaryNewfoundland, Canada34
PollenCretaceousTertiaryWest Germany (?)35
SporesCretaceousTertiaryCzechoslovakia36
ForaminifersCretaceousQuaternaryAdelie Coast, Antarctica37
ForaminifersCretaceousTertiaryAustria38
ForaminifersCretaceousTertiarySweden39
SporesCretaceousTertiaryAlps. Carpathians, Europe40
SporesCretaceousTertiaryWest, southwest Pacific41
ForaminifersCretaceousPleistoceneLouisiana, USA (78)42
PollenCretaceousTertiaryVenezuela43
PollenCretaceousTertiaryWyoming, USA43
ForaminifersCretaceousTertiaryCalifornia, USA44
ForaminifersCretaceousPleistoceneNetherlands45
ForaminifersCretaceousPleistoceneUtah, USA45
ForaminifersCretaceousTertiaryEngland39
PollenJurassicPermianSariz, Antalya, Turkey46
SporesJurassicTertiaryIsle of Mull, Scotland47
SporesJurassicPrecambrianUkraine, USSR48
CoccolithsJurassicSilurianNorth Africa (153)49
PollenJurassicTertiaryUtah, USA33
SporesJurassicCretaceousNewfoundland, Canada34
PollenJurassicTertiaryNewfoundland, Canada34
DinoflagellateJurassicCretaceousCalifornia, USA50
DinoflagellateJurassicTertiaryCalifornia, USA50
SporesJurassicCretaceousPerth Basin, Australia51
SporesJurassicTriassicNortheast Siberia, USSR52
PollenJurassicPleistoceneYenisei, USSR11
Spores“Mesozoic”PleistoceneNorth Caspia9
SporesJurassicPermianNortheast Siberia, USSR (218)52
SporesJurassicCambrianNortheast Siberia, USSR52
SporesTriassicCretaceousBritish Columbia, Canada53
SporesTriassic (and/or older)JurassicYukon, Canada54
SporesTriassicCretaceousAlberta, Canada55
OstracodesTriassicTertiaryHungary56
SporesTriassicJurassicAndoya, Norway57
ConodontsTriassicCretaceousCameroons58
ConodontsTriassicJurassicJapan58
SporesTriassicTertiaryKutch, India59
PollenTriassicTertiaryNewfoundland, Canada (150)34
PollenTriassicTertiaryUtah, USA33
SporesTriassicCretaceousPerth Basin, Australia51
Pollen“Mesozoic”TertiaryAtlantic Ocean60
Spores“Mesozoic”TertiaryHungary47
BrachiopodsPermianTriassicSalt Range, Pakistan61
ConodontsPermianTriassicSalt Range, Pakistan61
PollenPermianTriassicUtah, USA33
SporesPermianCretaceousKutch, India62
ConodontsPermianTriassicAkasaka, Japan63
SporesPermianTertiaryKerala, India (155)59
SporesPermianTertiaryKutch, India59
SporesPermianCretaceousMadhya Pradesh, India59
PollenPermianTertiaryNagaland, India64
SporesPermianCretaceousAlberta, Canada56
SporesPermianCretaceousBritish Columbia, Canada (238)53
FusulinidsPermianTriassicMine, Japan65
PollenPermianTriassicSoutheast Siberia, USSR66
PollenPermianTertiaryAssam, India64
PollenPermianTertiaryMaghalaya, India67
SporesPermianTriassicSomerset, England (90)68
PollenPermianJurassicKutch, India69
PollenPermianTertiarySouth Australia69
PollenPermianCretaceousVictoria, Australia69
AmmonoidsPermianTriassicKapStosch, Greenland70
SporesPermianTertiaryHungary47
SporesPermianCretaceousPerth Basin, Australia51
SporesPermianDevonianCanning Basin, Australia51
SporesCarboniferousJurassicPoland71
SporesCarboniferousJurassicSweden71
SporesCarboniferousJurassicEngland 9371
SporesCarboniferousJurassicScotland71
SporesCarboniferousJurassicLatvia, USSR71
SporesCarboniferousJurassicDenmark71
SporesCarboniferousJurassicBaltic Russia71
SporesCarboniferousTertiaryArkansas, USA72
SporesCarboniferousCretaceousPerth Basin, Australia51
FusulinidsCarboniferousPleistoceneUtah, USA45
PollenCarboniferousTriassicDevon, England73
SporesCarboniferousPrecambrianOnega, USSR74
SporesCarboniferousCretaceousLimburg, Netherlands 9169
SporesCarboniferousCretaceousKrakow, Poland75
PollenCarboniferousTertiaryHungary48
PollenCarboniferousTertiaryAlabama, USA48
PollenCarboniferousTriassicDonets Basin, USSR48
PollenCarboniferousJurassicDonets Basin, USSR48
SporesCarboniferousJurassicGermany71
SporesCarboniferousPermianPakistan71
AcritarchsCarboniferousTertiaryNewfoundland, Canada34
PollenCarboniferousDevonianMissouri-Iowa, USA76
PollenCarboniferousCretaceousMontana, USA 22177
PollenCarboniferousTertiaryMontana, USA77
ConodontsCarboniferousDevonianGraz/Styria, Austria78
PollenCarboniferousTriassicSoutheast Siberia, USSR79
SporesCarboniferousCretaceousAlberta, Canada56
ConodontsCarboniferous (lower)Carboniferous (medial)New Mexico, USA80
SporesCarboniferousCretaceousBritish Columbia, Canada53
SporesCarboniferousPermianDevonshire, England81
SporesCarboniferousTriassicDevonshire, England81
FusulinidsCarboniferousTriassicMine, Japan82
SporesCarboniferousPleistoceneOhio, USA 18183
SporesCarboniferousPermianYukon, Canada84
BrachiopodCarboniferousPermianYukon, Canada84
PollenCarboniferousPermianCaucasia, USSR85
Trilobite“Late Paleozoic”TertiaryUtah, USA86
SporesDevonianJurassicWest Arctic Islands, Canada87
ConodontsDevonianCarboniferousMissouri, USA88
SporesDevonianCarboniferousCanning Basin, Australia81
SporesDevonianPermianEast West Australia81
CrinoidsDevonianCarboniferousPamir Mts., USSR89
ConodontsDevonianSilurianTexas, USA 18890
Algal CystsDevonianCretaceousNortheastern Brazil91
PollenDevonianPermianCaucasia, USSR85
SporesDevonianCarboniferousYukon, Canada 18284
SporesDevonianPermianYukon, Canada84
SporesDevonianPleistoceneOhio, USA83
SporesDevonianJurassicWest Arctic Islands, Canada87
SporesDevonianCretaceousBritish Columbia, Canada53
SporesDevonian (medial)Devonian (upper)Belorussia, USSR92
ConodontsDevonianCarboniferousKansas, USA93
ConodontsDevonianCarboniferousNew Mexico, USA 22380
ConodontsDevonianCarboniferousGraz/Styria, Austria78
ConodontsDevonianTertiaryGraz/Styria, Austria78
ConodontsDevonianPleistoceneGraz/Styria, Austria78
BrachiopodsDevonian (lower)Devonian (medial)California, USA94
ConodontsDevonianCarboniferousKazakhstan, USSR95
ConodontsDevonianSilurianArkansas, USA96
ChitinozoansDevonianJurassicEast Bhutan97
ConodontsDevonianCarboniferousNevada, USA98
ForaminifersDevonianCarboniferousNevada, USA98
SporesDevonianCarboniferousBolivia 14399
ConodontsDevonianCarboniferousDevonshire, England100
AcritarchsDevonian (and/or older)CarboniferousNewfoundland, Canada34
SporesDevonianTriassicDevon, England73
ConodontsDevonianTriassicKockatea, Australia51
SporesDevonianCretaceousOtorowiri, Australia51
Thelodont, Acanthodian Fish ScalesDevonianPermianCanning Basin, Australia51
SporesDevonianCretaceousPerth Basin, Australia51
PollenDevonianCarboniferousOklahoma, USA101
SporesDevonianCarboniferousBelgium102
ConodontsDevonianPermianTexas, USA 99103
Algal CystsDevonianQuaternaryLake Michigan, USA104
ConodontsDevonianCarboniferousTexas, USA105
ConodontsDevonianCarboniferousOklahoma, USA106
AcritarchsSilurian (and/or older)DevonianWitney, England107
AcritarchsSilurianDevonianBelgium102
ConodontsSilurianCarboniferousOklahoma, USA106
Pollen“Paleozoic”PrecambrianKrivyi Rog, USSR48
Pollen“Paleozoic”TertiaryAtlantic Ocean108
Spores“Paleozoic”TertiaryBolivia99
Spores“Paleozoic”PleistoceneNorth Caspia, USSR 1669
SporesSilurianOrdovicianOhio, USA109
ChitinozoansSilurianJurassicEast Bhutan97
Plant tissueSilurian (and/or younger)OrdovicianOklahoma, USA110
AcritarchsSilurianCarboniferousBallyvergin, Ireland111
CrinoidsSilurianCarboniferousPamir Mts., USSR89
Algal CystsSilurianCretaceousNortheast Brazil91
ConodontsSilurianDevonianTexas, USA90
SporesSilurian(?)DevonianBelorussia, USSR92
ChitinozoansSilurianCretaceousAlaska, USA112
ConodontsOrdovicianSilurianOntario, Canada 192113
ConodontsOrdovicianDevonianMinnesota, USA114
AcritarchsOrdovicianTertiaryLough Neagh, Ireland115
ConodontsOrdovicianSilurianMissouri, USA116
ConodontsOrdovicianSilurianCarnic Alps, Italy117
ConodontsOrdovicianSilurianQuibec, Canada117
ConodontsOrdovicianSilurianCentral Texas, USA 18890
DiacrodiansOrdovicianPrecambrianSaxony, East Germany118
ConodontsOrdovicianSilurianIllinois, USA119
ConodontsOrdovicianSilurianIllinois, Indiana, USA120
AcritarchsOrdovicianCarboniferousBallyvergin, Ireland 191111
AcritarchsOrdovicianSilurianOhio, USA121
AcritarchsOrdovicianSilurianNew York, USA121
ConodontsOrdovicianSilurianCentral Siberia, USSR122
ConodontsOrdovicianSilurianSoutheast Indiana, USA123
ConodontsOrdovician (lower)Ordovician (medial)West Texas, USA124
Graptolites Conodonts, OstracodesOrdovicianDevonianMissouri, USA125
AcritarchsOrdovicianSilurianBelgium102
AcritarchsOrdovicianDevonianNetherlands-Belgium102
ConodontsOrdovicianCarboniferousOklahoma, USA106
SporesOrdovicianCarboniferousOklahoma, USA 9472
ConodontsOrdovicianCretaceousColorado, USA126
Acritarchs“Lower Paleozoic”TriassicDevonshire, England73
ArcheocyathidsCambrianPermianDwyka, South Africa127
TrilobitesCambrian (lower)Cambrian (medial)Bornholm, Denmark128
AcritarchsCambrianSilurianComeragh111
AcritarchsCambrianCarboniferousBallyvergin111
TrilobitesCambrianDevonianBielsko-Mogilany, Poland129
AcritarchsCambrianOrdovicianShropshire, England130
AlgaePrecambrianCambrian or OrdovicianVerkhoyansk, USSR131
SporesPrecambrianDevonianSaratov, USSR132

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